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Oscar Wilde : The Ballad of Reading Gaol

			I1
He2 did not wear his scarlet coat,
	For blood and wine are red,
And blood and wine were on his hands
	When they found him with the dead,
The poor dead woman whom he loved,
	And murdered in her bed. 

He walked amongst the Trial Men
	In a suit of shabby gray;
A cricket cap was on his head,
	And his step seemed light and gay;
But I never saw a man who looked
	So wistfully at the day.

I never saw a man who looked
	With such a wistful eye
Upon that little tent of blue
	Which prisoners call the sky,
And at every drifting cloud that went
	With sails of silver by. 

I walked with other souls in pain,
	Within another ring,
And was wondering if the man had done
	A great or little thing,
When a voice behind me whispered low,
	‘That fellow’s got to swing.’

Dear Christ! the very prison walls
	Suddenly seemed to reel,
And the sky above my head became
	Like a casque of scorching steel;
And, though I was a soul in pain,
	My pain I could not feel.

I only knew what hunted thought
	Quickened his step, and why
He looked upon the garish day
	With such a wistful eye;
The man had killed the thing he loved,
	And so he had to die.

			*
Yet each man kills the thing he loves,
	By each let this be heard,
Some do it with a bitter look,
	Some do it with a flattering word,
The coward does it with a kiss,
	The brave man with a sword!

Some kill their love when they are young,
	And some when they are old;
Some strangle with the hands of Lust,
	Some with the hands of Gold;
The kindest use a knife, because
	The dead so soon grow cold.

Some love too little, some too long,
	Some sell, and others buy;
Some do the deed with many tears,
	And some without a sigh:
For each man kills the thing he loves,
	Yet each man does not die.

He does not die a death of shame
	On a day of dark disgrace,
Nor have a noose about his neck,
	Nor a cloth upon his face,
Nor drop feet foremost through the floor
	Into an empty space.

			*
He does not sit with silent men
	Who watch him night and day;
Who watch him when he tries to weep,
	And when he tries to pray;
Who watch him lest himself should rob
	The prison of its prey.

He does not wake at dawn to see
	Dread figures throng his room,
The shivering Chaplain robed in white,
	The Sheriff stern with gloom,
And the Governor all in shiny black,
	With the yellow face of Doom.

He does not rise in piteous haste
	To put on convict-clothes,
While some coarse-mouthed Doctor gloats, and notes
	Each new and nerve-twitched pose,
Fingering a watch whose little ticks
	Are like horrible hammer-blows.

He does not know that sickening thirst
	That sands one’s throat before
The hangman with his gardener’s gloves
	Slips through the padded door,
And binds one with three leathern thongs,
	That the throat may thirst no more.

He does not bend his head to hear
	The Burial office read,
Nor, while the terror of his soul
	Tells him he is not dead,
Cross his own coffin, as he moves
	Into the hideous shed.

He does not stare upon the air
	Through a little roof of glass:
He does not pray with lips of clay
	For his agony to pass;
Nor feel upon his shuddering cheek
	The kiss of Caiaphas3.

			II
Six weeks our guardsman4 walked the yard,
	In the suit of shabby grey:
His cricket cap was on his head,
	And his step seemed light and gay,
But I never saw a man who looked
	So wistfully at the day.

I never saw a man who looked
	With such a wistful eye
Upon that little tent of blue
	Which prisoners call the sky,
And at every wandering cloud that trailed
	Its ravelled fleeces by.

He did not wring his hands, as do
	Those witless men who dare
To try to rear the changeling Hope
	In the cave of black Despair:
He only looked upon the sun,
	And drank the morning air.

He did not wring his hands nor weep,
	Nor did he peek or pine,
But he drank the air as though it held
	Some healthful anodyne5;
With open mouth he drank the sun
	As though it had been wine!

And I and all the souls in pain,
	Who tramped the other ring,
Forgot if we ourselves had done
	A great or little thing,
And watched with gaze of dull amaze
	The man who had to swing.

And strange it was to see him pass
	With steps so light and gay,
And strange it was to see him look
	So wistfully at the day,
And strange it was to think that he
	Had such a debt to pay. 

			*
For oak and elm have pleasant leaves
	That in the spring-time shoot:
But grim to see is the gallows-tree,
	With its adder-bitten root,
And, green or dry, a man must die
	Before it bears its fruit!

The loftiest place is that seat of grace
	For which all worldlings try:
But who would stand in hempen band
	Upon a scaffold high,
And through a murderer’s collar take
	His last look at the sky?

It is sweet to dance to violins
	When Love and Life are fair:
To dance to flutes, to dance to lutes
	Is delicate and rare:
But it is not sweet with nimble feet
	To dance upon the air!

So with curious eyes and sick surmise
	We watched him day by day,
And wondered if each one of us
	Would end the self-same way,
For none can tell to what red Hell
	His sightless soul may stray.

At last the dead man walked no more
	Amongst the Trial Men,
And I knew that he was standing up
	In the black dock’s dreadful pen,
And that never would I see his face
	In God’s sweet world again.

Like two doomed ships that pass in storm
	We had crossed each other’s way:
But we made no sign, we said no word,
	We had no word to say;
For we did not meet in the holy night,
	But in the shameful day.

A prison wall was round us both,
	Two outcast men we were:
The world had thrust us from its heart,
	And God from out His care:
And the iron gin6 that waits for Sin
	Had caught us in its snare.

			III
In Debtor’s Yard the stones are hard,
	And the dripping wall is high,
So it was there he took the air
	Beneath the leaden sky,
And by each side a Warder walked,
	For fear the man might die.

Or else he sat with those who watched
	His anguish night and day;
Who watched him when he rose to weep,
	And when he crouched to pray;
Who watched him lest himself should rob
	Their scaffold of its prey. 

The Governor was strong upon
	The Regulations Act:
The Doctor said that Death was but
	A scientific fact:
And twice a day the Chaplain called,
	And left a little tract.

And twice a day he smoked his pipe,
	And drank his quart of beer:
His soul was resolute, and held
	No hiding-place for fear;
He often said that he was glad
	The hangman’s hands were near.

But why he said so strange a thing
	No Warder dared to ask:
For he to whom a watcher’s doom
	Is given as his task,
Must set a lock upon his lips,
	And make his face a mask. 

Or else he might be moved, and try
	To comfort or console:
And what should Human Pity do
	Pent up in Murderers’ Hole?
What word of grace in such a place
	Could help a brother’s soul?

With slouch and swing around the ring
	We trod the Fool’s Parade!
We did not care: we knew we were
	The Devil’s Own Brigade:
And shaven head and feet of lead
	Make a merry masquerade. 

We tore the tarry rope to shreds
	With blunt and bleeding nails;
We rubbed the doors, and scrubbed the floors,
	And cleaned  the shining rails:
And, rank by rank, we soaped the plank,
	And clattered with the pails.

We sewed the sacks, we broke the stones,
	We turned the dusty drill:
We banged the tins, and bawled the hymns,
	And sweated on the mill:
But in the heart of every man
	Terror was lying still.

So still it lay that every day
	Crawled like a weed-clogged wave:
And we forgot the bitter lot
	That waits for fool and knave,
Till once, as we tramped in from work,
	We passed an open grave.

With yawning mouth the yellow hole
	Gaped for a living thing;
The very mud cried out for blood
	To the thirsty asphalte ring:
And we knew that ere one dawn grew fair
	Some prisoner had to swing. 

Right in we went, with soul intent
	On Death and Dread and Doom:
The hangman, with his little bag,
	Went shuffling through the gloom:
And each man trembled as he crept
	Into his numbered tomb.

			*
That night the empty corridors
	Were full of forms of Fear,
And up and down the iron town
	Stole feet we could not hear,
And through the bars that hide the stars
	White faces seemed to peer.

He lay as one who lies and dreams
	In a pleasant meadow-land,
The watchers watched him as he slept,
	And could not understand
How one could sleep so sweet a sleep
	With a hangman close at hand.

But there is no sleep when men must weep
	Who never yet have wept:
So we – the fool, the fraud, the knave – 
	That endless vigil kept,
And through each brain on hands of pain
	Another’s terror crept.

Alas! it is a fearful thing
	To feel another’s guilt!
For, right within, the sword of Sin
	Pierced to its poisoned hilt,
And as molten lead were the tears we shed
	For the blood we had not spilt.

The Warders with their shoes of felt
	Crept by each padlocked door,
And peeped and saw, with eyes of awe,
	Grey figures on the floor,
And wondered why men knelt to pray
	Who never prayed before. 

All through the night we knelt and prayed,
	Mad mourners of a corse7!
The troubled plumes of midnight were
	The plumes upon a hearse:
And bitter wine upon a sponge
	Was the savour of Remorse. 

			*
The grey cock crew, the red cock crew,
	But never came the day:
And crooked shapes of Terror crouched,
	In the corners where we lay:
And each evil sprite8 that walks by night
	Before us seemed to play.

They glided past, they glided fast,
	Like travellers through a mist:
They mocked the moon in a rigadoon9
	Of delicate turn and twist,
And with formal pace and loathsome grace
	The phantoms kept their tryst.

With mop and mow, we saw them go,
	Slim shadows hand in hand:
About, about, in ghostly rout
	They trod a saraband10:
And the damned grotesques made arabesques,
	Like the wind upon the sand!

With the pirouettes of marionettes,
	They tripped on pointed tread:
But with flutes of Fear they fillled the ear,
	As their grisly masque they led,
And loud they sang, and long they sang,
	For they sang to wake the dead. 

‘Oho!’ they cried, ‘The world is wide,
	But fettered limbs go lame!
And once, or twice, to throw the dice
	Is a gentlemanly game,
But he does not win who plays with Sin
	In the secret House of Shame.’

No things of air these antics were,
	That frolicked with such glee:
To men whose lives were held in gyves11,
	And whose feet might not go free,
Ah! wounds of Christ! they were living things,
	Most terrible to see.

Around, around, they waltzed and wound;
	Some wheeled in smirking pairs;
With the mincing step of a demirep12
	Some sidled up the stairs:
And subtle sneer, and fawning leer,
	Each helped us at our prayers.

The morning wind began to moan,
	But still the night went on:
Through its giant loom the web of gloom
	Crept till each thread was spun:
And, as we prayed, we grew afraid
	Of the Justice of the Sun.

The moaning wind went wandering round
	The weeping prison-wall:
Till like a wheel of turning steel
	We felt the minutes crawl:
O moaning wind! what had we done
	To have such a seneschal13?

At last I saw the shadowed bars,
	Like a lattice wrought in lead,
Move right across the whitewashed wall
	That faced my three-plank bed,
And I knew that somewhere in the world
	God’s dreadful dawn was red.

At six o’clock we cleaned our cells,
	At seven all was still,
But the sough and swing of a mighty wing
	The prison seemed to fill,
For the Lord of Death with icy breath
	Had entered in to kill.

He did not pass in purple pomp,
	Nor ride a moon-white steed.
Three yards of cord and a sliding board
	Are all the gallows’ need:
So with rope of shame the Herald came
	To do the secret deed.

We were as men who through a fen
	Of filthy darkness grope:
We did not dare to breathe a prayer,
	Or to give our anguish scope:
Something was dead in each of us,
	And what was dead was Hope.

For Man’s grim Justice goes its way
	And will not swerve aside:
It slays the weak, it slays the strong,
	It has a deadly stride:
With iron heel it slays the strong,
	The monstrous parricide!

We waited for the stroke of eight:
	Each tongue was thick with thirst:
For the stroke of eight is the stroke of Fate
	That makes a man accursed,
And Fate will use a running noose
	For the best man and the worst. 

We had no other thing to do,
	Save to wait for the sign to come:
So, like things of stone in a valley lone,
	Quiet we sat and dumb
But each man’s heart beat thick and quick,
	Like a madman on a drum!

With sudden shock the prison-clock
	Smote on the shivering air,
And from all the gaol rose up a wail
	Of impotent despair,
Like the sound that frightened marshes hear
	From some leper in his lair. 

And as one sees most dreadful things
	In the crystal of a dream,
We saw the greasy hempen rope
	Hooked to the blackened beam,
And heard the prayer the hangman’s snare
	Strangled into a scream. 

And all the woe that moved him so
	That he gave that bitter cry,
And the wild regrets, and the bloody sweats
	None knew so well as I:
For he who lives more lives than one
	More deaths than one must die.

			IV
There is no chapel on the day
	On which they hang a man:
The Chaplain’s heart is far too sick,
	Or his face is far too wan,
Or there is that written in his eyes
	Which none should look upon.

So they kept us close till nigh on noon,
	And then they rang the bell,
And the Warders with their jingling keys
	Opened each listening cell,
And down the iron stair we tramped,
	Each from his separate Hell.

Out into God’s sweet air we went,
	But it was not wonted way,
For this man’s face was white with fear,
	And that man’s face was grey,
And I never saw sad men who looked
	So wistfully at the day. 

I never saw sad men who looked
	With such a wistful eye
Upon that little tent of blue
	We prisoners called the sky,
And at every careless cloud that passed
	In happy freedom by. 

But there were those amongst us all
	Who walked with downcast head,
And knew that, had each got his due,
	They should have died instead:
He had but killed a thing that lived,
	Whilst they had killed the dead.

For he who sins a second time
	Wakes a dead soul to pain,
And draws it from its spotted shroud,
	And makes it bleed again,
And makes it bleed great gouts of blood,
	And makes it bleed in vain!

			*
Like ape or clown, in monstrous garb
	With crooked arrows starred,
Silently we went round and round
	The slippery asphalte yard;
Silently we went round and round,
	And no man spoke a word.

Silently we went round and round,
	And through each hollow mind
The Memory of dreadful things
	Rushed like a dreadful wind,
And Horror stalked before each man,
	And Terror crept behind.

			*
The Warders strutted up and down,
	And kept their herd of brutes,
Their uniforms were spick and span,
	And they wore their Sunday suits,
But we knew the work they had been at,
	By the quicklime14 on their boots.

For where a grave had opened wide,
	There was no grave at all:
Only a stretch of mud and sand
	By the hideous prison-wall,
And a little heap of burning lime,
	That the man should have his pall.

For he has a pall, this wretched man,
	Such as few men can claim:
Deep down below a prison-yard,
	Naked for greater shame,
He lies, with fetters on each foot,
	Wrapt in a sheet of flame!

And all the while the burning lime
	Eats flesh and bone away,
It eats the brittle bone by night,
	And the soft flesh by day,
It eats the flesh and bone by turns,
	But it eats the heart alway.

			*
For three long years they will not sow
	Or root or seedling there
For three long years the unblessed spot
	Will sterile be and bare,
And look upon the wondering sky
	With unreproachful stare.

They think a murderer’s heart would taint
	Each simple seed they sow.
It is not true! God’s kindly earth
	Is kindlier than men know,
And the red rose would but blow more red,
	The white rose whiter blow.

Out of his mouth a red, red rose!
	Out of his heart a white!
For who can say by what strange way,
	Christ brings His will to light,
Since the barren staff the pilgrim bore
	Bloomed in the great Pope’s sight15?

But neither milk-white rose nor red
	May bloom in prison air;
The shard, the pebble, and the flint,
	Are what they give us there:
For flowers have been known to heal
	A common man’s despair. 

So never will wine-red rose or white,
	Petal by petal, fall
On that stretch of mud and sand that lies
	By the hideous prison-wall,
To tell the men who tramp by the yard
	That God’s Son died for all.

			*
Yet though the hideous prison-wall
	Still hems him round and round,
And a spirit may not walk by night
	That is with fetters bound,
And a spirit may but weep that lies
	In such unholy ground.

He is at peace – this wretched man –
	At peace, or will be soon:
There is no thing to make him mad,
	Nor does Terror walk at noon,
For the lampless Earth in which he lies
	Has neither Sun nor Moon.

They hanged him as a beast is hanged:
	They did not even toll
A requiem that might have brought
	Rest to his startled soul,
But hurriedly they took him out,
	And hid him in a hole.

They stripped him of his canvas clothes,
	And gave him to the flies:
They mocked the swollen purple throat,
	And the stark and staring eyes:
And with laughter loud they heaped the shroud
	In which their convict lies.

The Chaplain would not kneel to pray
	By his dishonoured grave:
Nor mark it with that blessed Cross
	That Christ for sinners gave,
Because the man was one of those
	Whom Christ came down to save.

Yet all is well; he has but passed
	To life’s appointed bourne16:
And alien tears will fill for him
	Pity’s long-broken urn,
For his mourners will be outcast men,
	And outcasts always mourn. 

			V
I know not whether Laws be right,
	Or whether Laws be wrong;
And that we know who lie in gaol
	Is that the wall is strong;
And that each day is like a year,
	A year whose days are long.

But this I know, that every Law
	That men have made for Man,
Since first Man took his brother’s life,
	And the sad world began,
But straws the wheat and saves the chaff
	With a most evil fan.

This too I know – and wise it were
	If each could know the same – 
That every prison that men build
	Is built with bricks of shame,
And bound with bars lest Christ should see
	How men their brothers maim.

With bars they blur the gracious moon,
	And blind the goodly sun:
And they do well to hide their Hell,
	For in it things are done
That Son of God nor son of Man
	Ever should look upon!

			*
The vilest deeds like poison weeds,
	Bloom well in prison-air;
It is only what is good in Man
	That wastes and whithers there:
Pale Anguish keeps the heavy gate,
	And the Warder is Despair. 

For they starve the little frightened child
	Till it weeps both night and day:
And they scourge the weak, and flog the fool,
	And gibe the old and grey,
And some grow mad, and all grow bad,
	And none a word may say.

Each narrow cell in which we dwell
	Is a foul and dark latrine,
And the fetid breath of living Death
	Chokes up each grated screen,
And all, but Lust, is turned to dust
	In Humanity’s machine.

The brackish water that we drink
	Creeps with a loathsome slime,
And the bitter bread they weigh in scales
	Is full of chalk and lime,
And Sleep will not lie down, but walks
	Wild-eyed, and cries to Time.

			*
But though lean Hunger and green Thirst
	Like asp with adder fight,
We have little care of prison fare,
	For what chills and kills outright
Is that every stone one lifts by day
	Becomes one’s heart by night.

With midnight always in one’s heart,
	And twilight in one’s cell,
We turn the crank, or tear the rope,
	Each in his separate Hell,
And the silence is more awful far
	Than the sound of a brazen bell.

And never a human voice comes near
	To speak a gentle word:
And the eye that watches through the door
	Is pitiless and hard:
And by all forgot, we rot and rot,
	With soul and body marred.

And thus we rust Life’s iron chain
	Degraded and alone:
And some men curse, and some men weep,
	And some men make no moan:
But God’s eternal Laws are kind
	And break the heart of stone. 

			*
And every human heart that breaks,
	In prison-cell or yard,
Is at that broken box that gave
	Its treasure to the Lord,
And filled the unclean leper’s house
	With the scent of costliest nard17.

Ah! happy they whose hearts can break
	And peace of pardon win!
How else may man make straight his plan
	And cleanse his soul from Sin?
How else but through a broken heart
	May Lord Christ enter in?

			*
And he of the swollen purple throat,
	And the stark and staring eyes,
Waits for the holy hands that took
	The Thief to Paradise;
And a broken and a contrite heart
	The Lord will not despise.

The man in red who reads the Law
	Gave him three weeks of life,
Three little weeks in which to heal
	His soul of his soul’s strife,
And cleanse from every blot of blood
	The hand that held the knife.

And with tears of blood he cleansed the hand,
	The hand that held the steel:
For only blood can wipe out blood,
	And only tears can heal:
And the crimson stain that was of Cain18
	Became Christ’s snow-white seal.

			VI
In Reading gaol by Reading town
	There is a pit of shame,
And in it lies a wretched man
	Eaten by teeth of flame,
In a burning winding-sheet he lies,
	And his grave has got no name.

And there, till Christ call forth the dead,
	In silence let him lie:
No need to waste the foolish tear,
	Or heave the windy sigh:
The man had killed the thing he loved,
	And so he had to die.

And all men kill the thing they love,
	By all let this be heard,
Some do it with a bitter look,
	Some with a flattering word,
The coward does it with a kiss,
	The brave man with a sword!

Oscar Wilde (1855-1900)	1898

 
FOOTNOTES
1 Wilde was sentenced to two years hard labour in Reading Gaol following a prosecution for homosexual practise. After his release, bankrupt, and divorced, he left England for France and Italy, dying shortly afterwards in Paris where he is buried; 2 Reading Gaol was dedicated by Wilde “In Memoriam C.T.W. sometime trooper of the Royal Horse Guards, abit H.M. Prison, Reading, Berkshire” ; 3 high priest in Jerusalem who presided over the trial of Jesus; 4 refers to the prisoner himself who was a soldier in the guards (a guardsman), not to the prison guards; 5 a medicine that soothes or cures pain; 6 a snare or trap; 7 a corpse; 8 a goblin, fairy, etc.; 9 a lively dance; 10 slow Spanish dance; 11fetters; 12 a woman of doubtful reputation; 13 a steward; 14 white, caustic substance added to the grave to consume the prisoner’s body more quickly; 15 refers to a legend pertaining to Pope Gregory (“The Great”); 16 destination; 17 a plant which yielded an aromatic oil; 18 in the Bible (Genesis) Cain killed his brother Abel, spilling his blood on the ground. When God discovered this He put a curse on Cain so that the soil would yield nothing to his labour. He also put a mark on Cain to prevent him from being slain, but the “crimson stain” probably refers to Abel’s blood.
 

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